Are Drugs Effective For Flu?

Silver prevents attachment of the virus to host cells

Are Drugs Effective

Are Drugs Effective

Tamiflu (oseltamivir), the anti-influenza medication on every doctor’s short list, reduces the length of one’s flu symptoms but only by about a day at most, says a 2014 BMJ analysis of clinical trials. And it must be used almost immediately upon onset, they add. Tamiflu’s manufacturer and US and European regulatory authorities have now released previously unpublished data that the Cochrane Collaboration researchers were able to use to assess the results of 20 studies in which almost 10,000 children and adults took part.

Their findings were without any evidence that the drug would prevent serious cases and complications in the event of a flu epidemic and some evidence Tamiflu can shorten the duration of flu symptoms a little. Consider the following: without Tamiflu, symptoms lasted 7 days on average in otherwise healthy children and adults. With the drug the duration was shortened by a number of hours (from 7 to 6.3 days) in adults and by about a day in children.

Tamiflu “causes nausea and vomiting and increases the risk of headaches and renal and psychiatric syndromes….” says the article in BMJ. “The trade-off between benefits and harms should be borne in mind when making decisions to use oseltamivir for treatment, prophylaxis or stockpiling.” The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention do not recommend use for prevention either. This is due to risk of creating resistant viral strains, which already cut efficacy. The CDC advises that the drug’s use among healthy persons should be weighed against its risks and that its best use is with those persons for whom the flu could be deadly as with the very young and those who are immune-compromised. The most common side effects of oseltamivir are vomiting and nausea.

Silver Augments Drugs

Silver’s new evidence suggests it could be classified as a novel anti-influenza drug and could be Tamiflu’s ally in the fight against this seasonal killer, says a study in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.

Read: Silver Killer

The researchers decorated the surface of test materials using oseltamivir (OTV), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or a combination and exposed a type of flu virus called H1N1 to them. They compared the drug’s effects alone and combined with AgNPs. Compared to oseltamivir alone, oseltamivir-modified AgNPs (Ag@OTV) “have remarkable inhibition against H1N1 infection.”

2 Step Effect

Furthermore, silver prevented the attachment of the virus to host cells. Thus, it works much like Tamiflu, which belongs to the same class of drugs called neuraminidase inhibitors.

The enzyme neuraminidase is found on the surface of influenza viruses and enables it to be released from the host cell and spread into the body’s tissues. The enzyme neuraminidase is required for influenza virus replication. Silver inhibits this enzyme.

If step 1 of the viral invasion is releasing the enzyme neuraminidase to facilitate spread then in step 2 of the replication process, viruses must attach to tissues with a binding substance. Influenza HA is a glycoprotein found on the surface of influenza viruses. It is responsible for binding the virus with sialic acid on the membranes of respiratory tract or red blood cells. Silver blocks this glycoprotein as well.

“These findings demonstrate that Ag@OTV is a novel promising efficient virucide for H1N1.”

Kills Multiple Flue Viruses

A 2013 study from the Journal of Virological Methods demonstrated that silver kills different types of flu viruses.

Like H1N1, adenoviruses are also associated with respiratory, ocular or gastrointestinal diseases and especially dangerous to babies and immune weakened persons.

Noting that silver nanoparticles are demonstrated to be virucidal against not only H1N1 but human immunodeficiency and Hepatitis B viruses, the investigators looked at their decimating effect on adenovirus type 3 (Ad3). The results revealed “silver nanoparticles exhibit remarkably inhibitory effects on Ad3 in vitro, which suggests silver nanoparticles could be a potential antiviral agent for inhibiting Ad3 infection.”

Nullifies Second Infection

Silver also is active against bacteria that can attack the body when it is weakened by the flu virus and cause secondary infections and complications. A 2016 peer-reviewed report in Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal detailed the effects of a combination of nanosilver particles with sodium alginate, a phytochemical found in brown kelp, on the growth and development of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter cloacae, the antibiotic-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans and the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1. “Silver nanoparticles…. possess significant in vitro antimicrobial activity….” The study found silver inhibited all of these bacteria.

SILVER MUST-HAVES

Purchase bio-active silver hydrosol as a dietary supplement. Solutions with 10 parts per million 99.95% dispersal silver nanoparticles in pharmaceutically pure hydrosol (water) as opposed to colloids (an older and less sophisticated technology) are the must-haves. Take a tablespoon 3x daily of bio-active silver hydrosol for prevention and up to every 30 minutes during an acute episode. Could potentially be used along with Tamiflu under the guidance of a medical professional.

References
Chen N, Zheng Y, Yin J, Li X, Zheng C. Inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles against adenovirus type 3 in vitro. J Virol Methods. 2013 Nov;193(2):470-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2013.07.020. Epub 2013 Jul 22. Jefferson T, Jones M, Doshi P, Spencer EA, Onakpoya I, Heneghan CJ. Oseltamivir for influenza in adults and children: systematic review of clinical study reports and summary of regulatory comments. BMJ. 2014 Apr 9;348:g2545. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g2545.
Kubyshkin A, Chegodar D, Katsev A, Petrosyan A, Krivorutchenko Y, Postnikova O. Antimicrobial Effects of Silver Nanoparticles Stabilized in Solution by Sodium Alginate. Biochem Mol Biol J. 2016;2(2). pii: 13. Epub 2016 Jul 20.
Li Y, Lin Z, Zhao M, Xu T, Wang C, Hua L, Wang H, Xia H, Zhu B. Silver Nanoparticle Based Codelivery of Oseltamivir to Inhibit the Activity of the H1N1 Influenza Virus through ROS-Mediated Signaling Pathways. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016 Sep 21;8(37):24385-93. doi: 10.1021/acsami.6b06613. Epub 2016 Sep 12.
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